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service is well liked by visitors, and demonstrates an innovative way of attracting visitors,
making their visit to the museum as pleasant and memorable possible.
The Sony Eye Toy is another interface which employs an advanced form of camera-
based input. It consists of a USB video camera connected to a TV set. Users (players) can
see themselves on the TV monitor and are thereby quasi-immersed in the ongoing game.
Sony hopes to offer a package containing the USB camera and 20 suitable computer
games at a reasonable price in the coming year.
Auditory interface technologies
These technologies can refer both to audio input and to audio output, but it is the
development of the former type which will be presented briefly in this report.
Haptic interface technologies
Haptic interfaces enable manual interaction with virtual environments via force-feed-
back technology. Haptic exploration is a sensory task which involves the identification of
surface or volumetric properties. Examples of haptic devices are joysticks and data gloves
equipped with sensors which trace the movements of the hand and communicate them
to the computer.They are widely used for manipulation of the movements in VE's, most
noticeably in video game controllers.
Motion-tracking interfaces
Human movement tracking systems are those that generate data representing the user's
body movements. In general, such systems consist of sensors and/or markers or sources
either on the body or externally, and a computer holding the interface and stored data
on the human movement.
Human movement tracking systems can be classified as inside-in, inside-out and out-
side-in systems.With inside-in systems, both sensors and sources are worn on the body
while in the inside-out systems sensors are placed on the body but react to an external
source.These systems work by attaching equipment to different parts of the human body
and could be considered as more obtrusive. In the outside-in systems external sensors
sense sources on the body: these are less obtrusive in use. Current technology offers
dozens of different solutions for body tracking.
Dedicated motion-tracking interfaces such as the Eye Mouse track ocular movement
and translate it into signals to the computer. Such devices are of particular value for users
who may have difficulties using a mouse, trackball and/or keyboard effectively. It may
even free able-bodied users from being stuck behind their desks.
Olfactory technologies
Smell is not yet actively used in human-computer interaction, probably because the
world around us is full of all sorts of odour stimuli. Nonetheless a controlled presentation
of olfactory information can give advantages in various application fields.Two technolo-
gies in this field have been developed: electronic noses and virtual olfactory displays.
Electronic noses are emerging devices which can be used to measure the quality of a
product or a process.They will find their place in the food production, environment
studies and other activities involving analysis of odorants.
Virtual olfactory displays are systems which consist of hardware, software and chemi-
cals, and which are able to present olfactory information to the user of a Virtual
Environment. In the heritage sector, an electronic nose could conceivably be used in
Human Interfaces
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