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DigiCULT
.
Info
13
Network has two main aims. First, it aims
to create an informed, authoritative picture
of current and emerging 3D technology,
literacy and usage for object and site inter-
pretation in Europe and beyond.This is to
help in determining a `Research Roadmap'
for the European Commission.The second
main aim is to build up a balanced, struc-
tured network of leading cultural heritage,
business and technical partners with a
direct interest in the development of 3D
technology, literacy and usage that will be
ready to support subsequent R&D work
The project consortium includes archaeol-
ogy museums from six European countries
(Provincial Archaeological Museum of
Alicante, Archaeological Laboratories of
Dion, Mont Beuvray (archaeological site
and museum), National Museum of
Ireland, National Museums of Scotland,
Neanderthal Museum) and also technical
partners from these countries.
METHODOLOGY
F
our main approaches were utilised in
this user survey:
1
.Workshops in each partner country
and international workshops such as at
EVA 2002 London, bringing together 16
to 40 participants from archaeology
museums, universities, companies and
other interested organisations.This was
the most important method used to
obtain information.
archaeology museums. Nowadays `3D' has
come to mean something quite specific in
the computer field, i.e. creating the effect
of 3D on a 2D computer screen in what is
often termed `2.5 D'. It is this sense of 3D,
which we are using in this paper, and not
the `true' 3D usually achieved with glasses
or virtual reality, although the boundary
lines with the latter can be fuzzy.This kind
of 3D is already an established part of
European society.We are familiar with it
from Playstation-type games and television
where it often appears in a variety of con-
texts from news and sports programmes to
archaeology and history documentaries. In
addition to entertainment and information,
its educational potential and its capacity to
show, engage and inspire is much greater
than 2D images can provide.
T
his article reports on the results of a
survey of museum practices, needs
and future aspirations carried out in six
European countries in late 2002.The work
was conducted as part of the ORION
(Object Rich Information Network IST-
23001-39122) project to develop a
`Research Roadmap'.This report may be
regarded as `work-in-progress 'and we
hope that it will lead to feedback for
ORION.
B
egun in mid-2002 and due for com-
pletion in mid-2003, the EC-sup-
ported ORION Object Rich Information
ABSTRACT
T
he ORION project to develop a
Research Roadmap and Network on
3D for Archaeology Museums began with
the User Practices and Needs Study
reported in this article as well as a technol-
ogy state-of-the-art survey.The user survey
revealed higher than expected take-up to
date and a very strong interest in future 3D
applications. Although certain industrial
areas such as electronic games and televi-
sion are naturally ahead, archaeology muse-
ums are in a leading position in the
cultural heritage area as regards 3D and are
well placed to stimulate as well as apply
technology advances.The growing
ORION network is intended to help
these efforts. ORION can be found online
at: http://www.orion-net.org.
INTRODUCTION
3
D literacy has always been a part of the
museum environment and general
learning. Curators and other museum pro-
fessionals read 3D objects to derive mean-
ing. No other discipline does this to a
greater extent than archaeology, where
objects are absolutely core to gaining a
basic understanding of the societies that
produced them.The archaeologist's rela-
tionship with the 3D object is unique and
it is for this reason that the ORION proj-
ect chose, as its main focus, European
A
RCHAELOGY MUSEUMS
& 3D
IN THE
21
ST CENTURY
D
AVID
C
LARKE AND
J
AMES
H
EMSLEY
, D
EPARTMENT OF
A
RCHAEOLOGY
,
N
ATIONAL
M
USEUMS OF
S
COTLAND
, E
DINBURGH
, S
COTLAND
[
D
.
CLARKE
@
NMS
.
AC
.
UK
,
JAMESRHEMSLEY
@
CIX
.
CO
.
UK
]
N
EIL
S
HAW AND
M
ICHAEL
S
PEARMAN
, T
HE
M
ULTIMEDIA
T
EAM
, E
DINBURGH
, S
COTLAND
[
N
.
SHAW
@
NMS
.
AC
.
UK
,
MIKE
@
THETEAM
.
DEMON
.
CO
.
UK
]
M
ONICA
K
AAYK
, R
ESEARCHER
[
ACINOM
@
CIX
.
CO
.
UK
]