background image
cultural heritage institutions.These elements can
be linked and placed in a context by subject-matter
experts using ontologies or substructures.'
Artacho continues: `From these substructures,
which are still very much content-oriented, a teacher
should be able to build a course by sequencing the
substructures. It is a bit like using scissors and glue to
personalise and re-arrange printed material. On the
next level educative processes and activities can be
defined as well as tasks that students have to perform.
So you go from elements to substructures and then
to full courses. On top of that you have another two
layers: one containing the pedagogical information -
for example, the objectives of the learning process,
and the other containing the management infor-
mation.'
The layered model for educational content can
be used to bridge the gap between the `raw material'
from the repositories of the cultural heritage sector
and the teacher and learner, says Artacho. `Cultural
heritage institutions do not have to make lessons or
courses themselves.They can leave that to inter-
mediates, the content experts and the teachers.'
UNED, LSI Department
http://www.lsi.uned.es
DigiCULT 13
Management
Pedagogical /
Instructional
Activity / Task
Sequencing
Structure
Content
Interoperability para-
meters with LMS
Pedagogical information
Educative processes &
activities; collaborative
tasks & aktivities
Sequencing,
prerequisites, deadlines
dependencies
Navigational model
Small LOs, assets and
formatted content
Description levels of
educational material
IMS Learning Design
Educational
Modelling
Language
PALO
...
IMS Question & Test
Interoperability
IMS Simple
Sequencing
IMS Content
Packaging
SCORM 1.2
IMS Digital
Repositories
Miguel R. Artacho, UNED
http://www.lsi.uned.es
IMS: http://www.imsglobal.org
SCORM: http://wwwadlnet.org
Educational Content
SCORM 1.3
EML: http://eml.ou.nl
PALO: http://sensei.lsi.uned.es/palo/
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