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DigiCULT
However, interactivity and collaboration will
actually be granted if content providers adopt
internationally agreed specifications for content
tagging, packaging and tracking.What's more, the
massive adoption of new generation interoperability
standards will underpin higher performance levels
and enable content owners to free their content
and solutions from proprietary solutions.
Key bodies like IEEE,
5
IMS
6
and AICC
7
are
working on the development of e-learning
specifications (some of which are standards at the
moment) for the delivery of electronic learning
materials. Other bodies like the ADL
8
and OKI
9
use these specifications to propose application
profiles, which are interpreted subsets of mandatory
regulations, vocabularies and services targeting
specific sectors (Department of Defense and Ministry
of Labor of USA in the case of ADL and US Higher
Education Framework in the case of OKI).
Sometimes these specifications are sufficient to
create and describe cultural learning objects to be
used within a VLE; sometimes they are not.This
explains why the educational technology community
and some R&D projects are working towards
improving current specifications in order to propose
new standards capable of addressing the needs of the
new paradigms of education.
This paper focuses on the need and market
potential for conceiving and proposing specific VLE
platforms that foster e-learning uptake within the
cultural heritage educational sector, and proposes a
specific standards Application Profile for assuring e-
learning technologies & content interoperability and
reusability.
The paper introduces CHAPTER
, the Cultural
Heritage Application Profile for Technologies in
Education Reusability, the approach to cultural
heritage e-learning standardisation promoted by
European e-learning R&D and standardisation actor
Giunti Interactive Labs
10
together with results from
one of the main R&D projects co-ordinated by
Giunti Interactive Labs within this framework, called
SCULPTEUR (Semantic and Content-based
Multimedia Exploitation for European Benefit).
11
T
HE IMPORTANCE OF USING
STANDARDS
A
s we mentioned above, the adoption of stand-
ards allows different applications to define their
content, so that data can be exchanged.This is
particularly important in the CH sector, where
content can be distributed on the Internet and
represented in different formats, making it difficult
to find, access, present and maintain.
Some organisations are well known for their direct
involvement in the development of learning object
standards, theory, models or repositories.While a
number of e-learning organisations are also working
in the realm of learning objects, those listed below
have learning objects as their core focus, and as a
major component of their mission, or are of such
influence that their inclusion here is mandatory:
| Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative (ADL);
| Educational Object Economy Foundation (EOE);
12
| Instructional Management System Global Learning
Consortium (IMS);
| Learning Technology Standards Committee
(LTSC).
13
In this section the ADL-SCORM (Sharable
Content Object Reference Model)
14
Application
Profile is briefly examined, with the aim of
describing how cultural learning content can be
packaged, making it shareable and interoperable. It
is important to point out that, while the SCORM
Application Profile is based on a mandatory subset
of IMS specifications addressing Learning Objects
Indexing, Packaging and Sequencing, it has devel-
oped its own CMI (Computer Managed Instruction)
tracking model to enable object tracking and possibly
support adaptive and/or conditional sequencing
based on user performance in content navigation.
The SCORM is a set of specifications for
developing, packaging and delivering educational
and training materials whenever they are needed.
SCORM is a result of the US Government's
initiative in Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
which aims to provide access to high-quality materi-
als that are easily tailored to individual learner needs.
The SCORM applies current technology
developments from groups such as the IMS Global
Learning Consortium, the AICC and the IEEE
Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC)
to a specific content model, in order to produce
recommendations for consistent implementations
by the vendor community.
5
Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers,
http://www.ieee.org
6
IMS Global Learning
Consortium,
http://www.imsproject.org
7
The Aviation Industry CBT
(Computer-Based Training)
Committee, http://www.aicc.org
8
Advanced Distributed
Learning, http://www.adlnet.org
9
OKI, Open Knowledge
Initiative, http://web.mit.
edu/oki/
10
Giunti Interactive Labs,
http://www.giuntilabs.com
11
SCULPTEUR project,
http://www.sculpteurweb.org
12
Educational Object
Economy Foundation,
http://www.eoe.org
13
Learning Technology
Standards Committee,
http://ltsc.ieee.org/
14
ADL-SCORM,
http://www.adlnet.org/
index.cfm?fuseaction=
scormabt
Digicult_THI4_backup_13_10_03 24.10.2003 11:54 Uhr Seite 32