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to a wide range of content objects both
within and outside traditional CMS
content repositories.
Delivery/Publication. Provide content
to participating delivery servers and to
facilitate the publication and manage-
ment of delivered content.
Site Management. Provide mechanisms
for monitoring and reporting on the use
of managed content; provide mecha-
nisms for automatically generating high-
level `site maps' depicting the relation-
ships of pages and objects to a depth of
at least four layers of referral.
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
T
ogether with the distributed institu-
tional structures of the university,
baseline functional requirements helped
determine the technical parameters of a
content management system.
Federated Architecture. Multiple
independent servers running a standard,
accepted CMS software package put
together in coordination with a central
CMS support organisation.
Interoperability. CMS systems must
interoperate as seamlessly as possible
with a wealth of existing content already
available through a number of well-
travelled and well-recognised Duke
campus Websites. System-driven man-
dates for change should be at the
discretion of the content creators,
where possible.
Integration. Because the level of tech-
nical expertise varies dramatically among
campus users, flexible integration with
third-party development and authoring
tools is critical. Some users will have a
high degree of technical expertise and
demand fine-grained control over their
content; some will have a low degree of
technical expertise and need to create
and deliver content in the most natural
and `matter of fact' fashion possible.
Scalability. Because neither the size of
the user population nor the extent of
etc.) needed to support efforts to balance
creativity and flexibility with brand con-
sistency at the departmental, school and
University levels.
Flexibility. Make it easier for all Duke
Web efforts to support the full range of
Web content sources (development
tools, databases, etc.) and Web display
devices (graphical browsers, text-only
browsers, kiosks and emerging small-
screen platforms such as cell phones and
PDAs).
Implementation. Give first priority to
the immediate needs of early adopters
and second priority to anticipated future
needs of an emerging CMS community.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
T
he overall goals for the campus con-
tent management initiative defined a
discrete set of functional capabilities that
must be included in any system, whether
bought or built locally.
Content Authoring. Provide for the
smooth and efficient creation and edit-
ing of content; integration with com-
mon editing and word processing tools;
ability to import existing content,
metadata, multiple file types.
Presentation. Flexible use of common
development tools; creation or import of
templates, standard forms.
Syndication. Support the sharing and
reuse of content across campus.
Workflow. Support various forms of
workflow and facilitate the management
of content throughout its lifecycle (from
creation through publication and syndi-
cation to deactivation and archiving).
Versioning. Provide revision control
mechanisms, both in support of collabo-
rative content manipulation and in sup-
port of change management and content
reversion.
Accessibility. Content stored or
indexed within content repositories must
be easily accessible during Website devel-
opment, and access needs to be provided
1. authoring (creating Web content in a
managed and authorised environment);
2. workflow (management of the steps
between authoring and publishing);
3. storage (authored content components,
in multiple versions, in a repository);
4. publishing (dynamic delivery of stored
content to the Web).
DUKE GOALS FOR A CONTENT
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
A
t Duke, as may be the case in any
widely decentralised organisation, the
capabilities of an enterprise software tool
with the wide impact of a content man-
agement system are demanding.The team
charged with identifying a CMS tool for
the university developed a list of key goals
driving the software selection process.
Site Maintenance. Enable non-techni-
cal staff to update and maintain their
Web content more easily and efficiently
using a variety of computing platforms
and Web development tools.
Consistency. Provide a consistent Web
site management environment that will
handle content creation, style, visitor
usability, policy, workflow, versioning,
and revision control for decentralised
Web infrastructures and content authors.
Sharing. Facilitate the syndication
(sharing and reuse) of Web content, with
the appropriate editorial accountability,
by offering central facilities to index and
cache content that originates anywhere
on the Duke subnet.
Automation. Reduce inaccurate, out-
dated, redundant or unauthorised
content through automated content
management processes, versioning and
workflow.
Accessibility. Make it easier for all
Duke Web efforts to achieve and main-
tain compliance with evolving standards
(ADA and W3 compliance, University
and departmental privacy policies, etc.)
and provide the tools (repositories of
approved templates, images and logos,