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DigiCULT 17
to conform to computers, take steep learning curves,
acquire specific skills and perform complex tasks.
Rather, interacting with computers becomes natu-
ral and intuitive, relaxing and enjoyable. This involves
the opportunity to use all our senses such as voice
(natural language), eye movements, touch, pointing,
gestures or facial expression for inter-
acting with the various AmI environ-
ments. While the IST Advisory Group
has developed comprehensive Ambi-
ent Intelligence scenarios and pub-
lished reports on issues such as trust,
dependability, security and privacy, it
considers AmI to remain `an "emerg-
ing property", and that future sce-
nario building and iterations of the
vision should treat AmI as an "imag-
ined concept" and not a set of speci-
fied requirements'.
14
H
owever, there is much ongoing
research to develop AmI tech-
nologies and applications. To give a
few examples: since the beginning of
2001, there have been many inter-
esting projects in the IST Future
and Emerging Technologies initiative `Disappearing
Computer';
15
Philips Research has strongly adopt-
ed the AmI vision
16
and coordinated the `Ambience'
project (2001-2003), which involved 20 European
partners;
17
the recently launched Integrated Project
`Ambient Networks' strives to set new standards for
future context-aware, multi-domain mobile net-
works.
18
Other major industry players and research cen-
tres are working on AmI technologies under differ-
ent labels such as IBM`s `Pervasive Computing',
19
Hewlett-Packard`s `Cooltown',
20
Xerox Corporation's
subsidiary Palo Alto Research Centre where the term
`Ubiquitous Computing' was coined back in 1988,
21
and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
industry-sponsored research programme `Things That
Think' and the Oxygen project.
22
Furthermore, the expanding field of AmI RTD has
established places where the multi-disciplinary com-
munity of researchers meets, such as the European
Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (Eindhoven/
NL, 2003 and 2004),
23
the Smart Objects Confer-
ence (Grenoble, France, 2003),
24
the International
Conference on Pervasive Computing (Linz & Vien-
na, Austria, 2004)
25
or the UbiComp - International
Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Notting-
ham, 2004).
26
C
ULTURAL
H
ERITAGE
IN
A
M
I@L
IFE
I
n studies relating to the AmI vision, the heritage sec-
tor has been addressed in a fairly general form. The
most detailed statements can be found in the Ambient
Intelligence in Everyday Life (AmI@Life) pilot science &
technology roadmap which was developed by the Insti-
tute for Prospective Technological Studies of the Euro-
pean Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC/IPTS)
in collaboration with the European Science and Tech-
nology Observatory (ESTO) network.
In the AmI@Life roadmap, a chapter that describes
a broad range of application areas also addresses cul-
tural heritage among a larger group `Culture, Leisure,
and Entertainment'.
27
Besides cultural heritage this
group includes cultural participation (`out-of-house'
cultural participation and recreation; creation & art);
entertainment, media, avatars (personal information
assistants), and sport & fitness.
The section on cultural heritage distinguish-
es four key functions and assesses the relevance of
AmI technologies for them. Furthermore, in a `func-
tion roadmap', timelines are given for some general
developments in cultural heritage.
28
In the following
we summarise the expected developments in the four
key functions.
(1) Preservation & digitisation:
Here the authors mention, for example, regular
transfer of digital stocks to new, well-established stand-
ards, and highly automated digitisation processes and
workflows, but state that it is `not certain that Ambient
Intelligence as such will make a breakthrough'.
General development/timelines: Large-scale digi-
14
ISTAG: Ambient
Intelligence: from vision to
reality, September 2003,
p. 3. http://www.cordis.
lu/ist/istag-reports.htm
15
IST FET: Disappearing
Computer (I+II). http://
www.cordis.lu/ist/
fet/dc-sy.htm
16
Philips Research. http://
www.research.philips.com/
technologies/syst_softw/
index.html#ambintel
17
Ambience project.
http://www.extra.research.
philips.com/euprojects/
ambience/
18
AN project. http://
www.ambient-networks.org
19
IBM. http://www.
research.ibm.com/
thinkresearch/
pervasive.shtml
20
HP. http://www.cool
town.com/cooltown/
21
PARC. http://www.
parc.com/research/;
the term was coined by
their former chief scientist
Marc Weiser.
http://www.ubiq.com/
hypertext/weiser/
UbiHome.html
22
MIT: "Things That
Think". http://ttt.media.
mit.edu; MIT Oxygen
project. http://oxygen.
lcs.mit.edu
23
European Symposium
on Ambient Intelligence.
http://www.eusai.net
24
Smart Objects
Conference. http://www.
grenoble-soc.com
25
Pervasive conference.
http://www.pervasive
2004.org
26
Ubicomp. http://ubi
comp.org/ubicomp2004/
27
JRC/IPTS - ESTO
Study: Science and Technology
Roadmapping: Ambient
Intelligence in Everyday Life
(AmI@Life). Compiled
and edited by Michael
Friedewald (Fraunhofer
Institute Systems and
Innovation Research ISI)
and Olivier Da Costa
(Institute for Prospective
Technology Studies), pp.
70-77, June 2003. http://
fiste.jrc.es/download/
AmIReportFinal.pdf
28
Cf. Ami@Life Roadmap,
pp. 131-132, and the tables
on pp. 138-139.
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