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46 DigiCULT
ed from its use, and when use has been discussed it
has been topically oriented, problem-solving type use.
The basic reason for human communication is social
to express joy, enthusiasm, frustration, contentment,
annoyance, rage. Systems could have and need to have
hooks and affordances to model and cater for the
expression of emotion in interaction.'
With respect to major steps or breakthroughs in
RTD that would need to be achieved, Karlgren sug-
gested that `more and better information access
research' should include: `research on and models of
situated information use, including collaboration and
distributed information access away from the desktop
(also proceeding apace); research and prototype devel-
opment on the emotional components of informa-
tion access behaviour and on the emotion of culture
(taking first steps)'. Such research would involve (and
often be driven by) mobile communication device
manufacturers as a `crucial survival factor' and would
be `noticeably emergent with new types of mobile
phone handsets, handheld PDAs, laptops etc. within
the next decade'.
Roger Drage (Milton Keynes Museum, UK)
expected that over the next 10 to 15 years `ever great-
er degrees of realism/authenticity in creating recon-
structions and realisations of the past in scenes,
buildings, experiences, etc.' as well as `deeper immer-
sion in the exploration of different cultures via ICT'
would be achieved. Furthermore, Drage thought
that `reliable voice recognition systems will gradual-
ly play an ever more key role'; however, the technol-
ogy would `need to advance a lot before it is properly
viable as a navigation system'. In the short-term per-
spective, he suggested the adoption of XML technol-
ogy `as the nearest thing we currently have to seamless
interaction and the basis for future development'.
A major issue was also seen in the required multi-
linguality to allow as many users as possible to benefit
from novel ways of interacting with rich multime-
dia content. Samuel Cruz-Lara (LORIA INRIA
Lorraine, France) addressed this topic with regard
to broadcast digital heritage applications, which
would need to build on new software technology
and standards. Drawing on results from the Jules Ver-
ne project,
Cruz-Lara highlighted the opportuni-
ty to exploit open standards (MHP-Java, Java Flash),
advanced video compression protocols (H264), and
emerging standards for object-oriented interactive
digital media (MPEG-4, MPEG-7 and MPEG-21).
For this thematic overview, Cruz-Lara's description
of the essential role of multilingual linguistic infor-
mation in the management and provision of interac-
tive heritage applications seems particularly valuable
to summarise. Linguistic information, he stated, `bears
most of the descriptive content associated with more
visual information', and may be text describing pic-
tures or video sequences, information presented to
the user graphically or via a text-to-speech proces-
sor, menus in interactive multimedia or TV, subtitles,
dialogue prompts, or implicit data appearing on an
image (caption, tags, etc.). Therefore, it is crucial to be
able to adapt such content efficiently to the linguis-
tic needs of the user. Cruz-Lara highlighted the need
for a flexible specification platform for elementary
multilingual units that may be either embedded in
multimedia content or used autonomously to local-
ise content.
For future multilingual interactive digital heritage
applications, Cruz-Lara stated that `the main issue is
being able to define and to integrate standards from
ISO IEC MPEG committees and standards from ISO
TC 37: Terminologies and other language resourc-
es, more specifically, Computer applications in termi-
nology (SC3), and Language resources management
(SC4).' He added: `Within an optimistic approach, we
think that integration of MPEG standards and Termi-
nology and Language Resources Management should
be achieved by 2010. Within a pessimistic approach,
integration may never be achieved.'
: N
he table below gives a condensed overview of
what the experts thought could be achieved
in this RTD area over the next 10-15 years. After a
short summary of what they considered to be cur-
rent limitations or barriers, the experts' suggestions
are grouped into the phases 2005-2009, 2010-2014,
2015 and beyond. The timeframes and, where given,
years indicate when a certain methodological and/
or technological gap could be closed or some oth-
er RTD breakthrough be achieved. These assessments
are of course dependent on the condition that appro-
priate funding levels, RTD collaborations and other
requirements are met.
2004: Current limitations/barriers
For distributed heritage information systems, Kari-
anne Albrigtsen Aam stated that `the main limitation
will be to present the resources as seamless as pos-
sible, considering the different ways of presenting,
both technical and cultural, in the different sectors'.
Overall, the heritage sector (in particular, institu-
Jules Vernes Project,
lab.php; a detailed summary
(28 November 2004, in
French) is given at http://
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