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50 DigiCULT
real progress: `Step 1: Solve issues related to textu-
al material. Though a lot has been done more needs
still to be done! Especially if we look at really hard
material, such as non-western textual tradition, etc.
or old material (e.g. for material before 1800 the lev-
el of automation in digitisation is crude). Still 5-
8 years of work. Step 2: Video, Audio; again: a lot has
been done, but the real challenges are still not solved.
Automated extraction of features within video and
audio, applications suitable also for the end-user, etc.
More than 5 years. Step 3: 3-Dimensional objects.
A wide field which is still in a very dynamic stage.
More than 10 years.' The participant also noted that
`automation for digitisation is NOT a research field
sui generis, but needs input from other research fields
and application areas; the communication between
users, researchers and companies is even more impor-
tant than in other research fields.'
Jacques Bogaarts (Nationaal Archief, The Nether-
lands) wanted for the future to see archival objects
`in a digital form that is very close to the original,
for example, a collection of papers bound together
should be presented in the same way. Software that
operates on these objects make it possible to turn
the pages and to search in the objects. (...) Meta-
data must be extracted in a highly automated way
from the archival objects themselves. Today's tools
(NMR, OCR) are not adequate for these kinds of
manipulations.' Bogaarts requested RTD to build 3D
scanning tools that can handle archival objects in the
way described, and OCR-like technology for archival
hand-written text; however, he thought that it may
take until 2020 for such technologies to emerge.
Alessandro Piva (PostDoc Researcher, University
of Florence, Italy) highlighted the need to further
develop existing Digital Rights Management Sys-
tems (DRMS) to address the complexity of the rights
clearing and licensing management for the hetero-
geneous, multimedia collections of many heritage
organisations. In particular, he thought that `there are
no current valid solutions to the problem of limita-
tion and tracking of use of multimedia content', and
available image processing applications in the field
Web site:
Further interesting projects:
Archeoguide: Augmented Reality-based Cultural
Heritage On-site Guide.
ARCO: Augmented Representation of Cultural
Lifeplus was an EU-funded IST project
(03/2002-11/2004), which undertook to push
the limits of current Augmented Reality (AR)
technologies. It explored the narrative design of
fictional spaces created in real-time on a head-
mounted display (HMD) through a combination
of real scenes and realistic 3D simulations (plus
computer-generated sounds) of humans, animals
and plants. Lifeplus concentrated on the archae-
ological visitor attraction Pompeii as the main
showcase. Leading-edge techniques were used
for character simulation including cloth and hair,
facial emotion software for realistic expressions,
and artificial life algorithms for behavioural ani-
For the fine-tuning of what the visitor actually
sees on the HMD, special software was developed
by the British project partner 2d3. This software
interprets the input from the camera attached to
the HMD, to derive the positional and perspec-
tive information crucial for an accurate match
between the real and virtual elements. With-
out this information, the added virtual elements
would not `sit' in the scene realistically. Andrew
Stoddard from 2d3 states: `We've used leading-
edge computer-vision techniques in our products
for several years now, but this is the first time that
anyone has been able to move a camera through a
scene and have the software to work out in real-
time where it is and how it's moving.'
See the project's Web site:;
and the detailed article: "2d3 develops real-time
camera tracking for EU augmented reality
project" (29 September 2004), http://www.2d3.
The CREATE (Constructivist Mixed Reali-
ty for Design, Education, and Cultural Heritage)
project explores and develops technologies that
allow users `truly interacting within a mixed reali-
ty environment by modifying it, building upon it,
appropriating pieces or parts of it, testing ideas that
are triggered by given or pre-existing elements,
and actively participating in problem-solving and
critical thinking in an activity which they find rel-
evant and engaging.' Prototype applications will be
realised for a cultural heritage/education scenario
and an architectural/urban planning and design
review scenario.
DCTHI7_271104.indd 50
06.12.2004 8:38:04 Uhr