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74 DigiCULT
interfaces (e.g. multimodal), games (e.g. multi-play-
er online environments), haptics & robotics, mobile &
location-based services, natural language processing,
and Semantic Web technologies.
These technologies will largely remain beyond the
reach of small and medium-sized institutions. The
initial investment for developing and implementing
such state-of-the-art applications plus costs of run-
ning the application on a regular basis the total cost
of ownership (TCO) are likely to be prohibitive for
most institutions.
There may be scope for simple, low-cost Web-
based applications of games and virtual reality, but
these are unlikely to become strong and longer-term
attractions. As the diagram illustrates, small and medi-
um-sized institutions will have to follow other strat-
egies to attract on-site and online visitors such as
virtual community projects, for example in region-
al history.
100
Regarding management systems for digital assets,
rights/licensing and payments, smaller institutions
themselves will not find a business case as they do
not, for example, hold an appropriate volume of
marketable collection objects. However, such tech-
nologies may become relevant if smaller collections
are digitised in the framework of a national or larg-
er regional initiative, and the digital assets, rights
and related transactions are then managed by digit-
al heritage service centres. Thereby, collection meta-
data of smaller institutions could also be included
in resource discovery networks, and some of their
resources (e.g. photographs, postcards) may form
highly valuable parts of Learning Objects in cultural
and social history.
100
For a more detailed
analysis, see Guntram Geser,
"Assessing the readiness of
small heritage institutions
for e-culture technologies",
DigiCULT.Info Issue 9,
November 2004, pp. 8-13.
http://www.digicult.info/
pages/newsletter.php
Large
institutions
Medium to
large-size
institutions
Small to
large-size
institutions
near-term (~2 years)
medium-term (~4 years)
longer-term (~6+ years)
Virtual Communities
and Collaboration
(TWR 2, TISS 5)
Automatic
payment systems
(TWR 2)
Smart Labels &
Smart Tags
(TWR 1)
Resource Discovery
& Information Retrieval
(TISS 6, TWR 3)
Rights
Management
Techs
(TWR 2)
Semantic Web
Techs
(TISS 3)
Haptics &
Robotics
(TWR 3)
Mobile Techs
& LBS
(TWR 2+3)
Cultural agents
and avatars
(TWR 2)
Natural
Language Processing
(TWR 3)
Virtual Reality Techs
(TWR 1)
New Human
Interfaces
(TWR 1)
Game Techs
(TWR 1)
Electronic
programming
guides
(TWR 2)
Digital Asset
Management Systems
(TWR 1, TISS 2)
Open Source &
Free Software
(TWR 3)
Display Techs
(TWR 1)
XML family of
technologies
(TWR 2)
Learning Objects
(TISS 4)
Visualisation of Data
(TWR 3)
Application
Service Model
(TWR 2)
Customer Relationship
Management
(TWR 1)
TWR =
DigiCULT Technology Watch Report
TISS =
DigiCULT Thematic Issue
Diagram: Technology adoption assessment for small to large-size heritage institutions
DCTHI7_271104.indd 74
06.12.2004 8:39:04 Uhr