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The bowl display was executed in a different manner to that of the scroll, since the
object is significantly different in its physical appearance and shape.Three-dimensional
data were obtained via CAT scans of the original. Based on the obtained data, a resin
teabowl was made, hardened through irradiation by ultra-violet rays.This surrogate gave
the feeling one would have touching the original, and matching the real object in size,
weight and texture.Thus the inside bottom or the underside of the foot could observed
where they would otherwise be visible only if the teabowl was upended manually.
The organisers and developers of the multimedia tools for the exhibition were pleased
with the results.Visitors expressed satisfaction in gaining a unique experience. Partial sup-
port for preparation of the specialised displays was gained by grants from the Juroku Bank,
Ltd., the Juroku Bank Regional of Promotion Foundation, and Itochu International.
Donations of equipment were received from Sony Corp USA and MicroWarehouse.
Case Study III ­ Kulturen
Kulturen is the world's second-oldest open-air museum. It is situated in Lund in
southern Sweden in a park with about forty houses and more than two million artefacts
from all over the world.The historic buildings portray everyday lives from the Middle
Ages until the present.
In 1997, Kulturen applied for and received funding to develop the use of information
technologies as a natural part of the museum's work, internal and external. Most of the
money was spent to build the internal infrastructure.Together with the University
Museum of Lund, the staff at Kulturen took part in developing a hand held museum
guide called Saxo, a groundbreaking system which involved the use of the Apple
portable computer.The idea was to build a museum guide that could be offered
to the visitors via a PDA device, and which was flexible enough to serve the widely dif-
fering needs of the collection.
There were several impetuses for starting work on the project, chief among which was
to offer a device guiding foreign visitors and other users with special needs.This device
should give the visitor an opportunity to see the exhibitions independently, but at the
same time complementing their experiences with additional information.The Newton
device was used as a guide, stored with more information than there was displayed in the
museum. As Sebastian Goksör, Systems Administrator at the museum, explains: `The cura-
tors wanted clean exhibitions, with less interruptive texts.'Therefore, the role of the
device was to fill in the gaps between the detailed exhibits and their corresponding
descriptions.The need was to serve visitors with special needs or foreign languages and
to offer substantially richer information on the collection.
When these aims were clarified, the staff at Kulturen searched for a handheld device
suitable for the project's needs with audio and maximum storage capacity for a number
of languages.The devices had removable memory sticks, which therefore offered the pos-
sibility of different programs for each use. Maps of some exhibitions, written and spoken
Human Interfaces
This case study is based on a questionnaire completed in January 2003 by Sebastian Goksör, Systems
Administrator at the museum. Subsequent information comes from the Kulturen Website,
The Apple Newton was the earliest Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Released in 1993, the first Newtons
had a notable weakness ­ poor handwriting recognition. Newton lost its lead in the emerging PDA market
to the newly introduced Palm Pilot in 1996.The Palm Pilot and other subsequent PDA's were smaller,
cheaper, and enjoyed higher sales figures. Apple officially discontinued the Newton and all related products
in February 1998.