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be cut due to the change in the amount of work to be done compared to current
check-in and check-out practices. Benefits may include the fact that the staff will be able
to offer better and more specialised service, to the visitors of the institution. Another dif-
ficult issue relates to privacy. In library applications, for example, the new means of self-
check are considered very positive in this respect. On the other hand, in guided or stud-
ied museum tours this is can be a delicate matter, and must be handled as such.
Tabular Overview
Smart Labels
and Smart Tags
The technology combines identifi cation
and security
Time is saved through the processing of
multiple entries simultaneously
Covers all information processes related
to holdings circulation and to supply data
for various purposes (e.g. for Internet
Brings innovative ways to organisation
of tours in museums and other types of
Leads to a change in the work processes
structure (staff are able to perform direct
services instead of checking in and out;
also lowers the risk of repetitive strain
Leads to change in the work processes
structure (possible staff reduction.)
Radio spectrum problems: there may be
different regulations in place in different
countries, although the Conference of Post
and Telecommunications Administrations
(CEPT) now handles this in the EU
Immature standardisation (especially on
the tag content)
Privacy issues (self-check) are considered
positive for the borrower
Privacy issues: museums tracking visitors
might be considered a negative
Potential incompatibility of tags/devices in
the future
Estimation of lifespan for some types of
tags: 10 years for commercial purposes
(in the cases of active tags this is due to
battery life) is OK, but not suffi cient for
cultural heritage institutions
High reported number of cases of
erroneously read tags (reported 1% in real-
life cases) due to problems with tags or