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OIL - Ontology Inference Layer
OIL is a proposal for a Web-based representation
and inference layer for ontologies. It uses a layered
approach to defining a standard ontology language.
Each layer adds functionality and complexity to the
previous layer.This is done such that machines that
can only process a lower layer can still partially
understand high-level ontologies. See:
A white paper on OIL functions: `An informal
description of Standard OIL and Instance OIL', by
the On-To-Knowledge group led by Department of
Computer Science, University of Manchester, UK,
28 November 2000,
Ontology research: Laboratory for Applied Ontology
(LOA), Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Techno-
logy (ISTC),
Dieter Fensel: Ontologies: A Silver Bullet for
Knowledge Management and Electronic Commerce.
New York, Springer, 2001.
`Ontology Infrastructure for the Semantic Web',
includes detailed subject bibliography. WonderWeb
Project, Department of Computer Science,Victoria
University of Manchester, UK,
Standard Upper Ontology (SUO): An upper
ontology for data interoperability, information
search and retrieval, automated inferencing, and
natural language processing. IEEE Standard Upper
Ontology (SUO) Working Group,
OWL - Web Ontology Language
The Web Ontology Language is a semantic markup
language for publishing and sharing ontologies on
the World Wide Web. OWL is developed as a
vocabulary extension of the Resource Description
Framework (RDF) and is derived from the
DAML+OIL Web Ontology Language. For the
development of this language, see the documents
of the Web Ontology (WebOnt) Working Group,
See also OWL Web Ontology Language Refer-
ence (W3C Working Draft 31 March 2003) at, and OWL Web
Ontology Language Guide (W3C Working Draft 31
March 2003),
For an understanding of the goals, requirements
and usage scenarios for a Web ontology language, see:
`Web Ontology Language (OWL) Use Cases and
Requirements' (W3C working draft, 31 March
RDF - Resource Description Framework
See Cultural Heritage Semantic Web Example &
Primer, pp. 32-34.
Semantic Web
`The Semantic Web',Tim Berners-Lee with James
Hendler and Ora Lassila, Scientific American, May
`Enhanced: Science and the Semantic Web', J. A.
Hendler, in: Science magazine,Volume 299, Number
5606, 24 January 2003, pp. 520-521.
`Peer-to-Peer:The Infrastructure for the Semantic
Web', Stanford University.The Semantic Web as the
next evolutionary step of the Internet,