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were filed alphabetically according to the
programme title or the name of the pro-
ducer. In more elaborate systems, there
were multiple cards, which permitted
searches by programme title, name, tape,
and some additional criteria. In the 1980s,
the YLE radio archive had a catalogue con-
sisting of more than a hundred thousand
such file cards.
t this stage, fortunately, computers
came along to help us. Instead of file
cards, the information could now be typed
into a database. It was now easier to search
for information, and if the computer was
put on a network, anybody working for
the company could search the catalogue.
The computerised catalogue was initially
used only for new productions, but gradu-
ally we were even able to convert our old
card catalogue into database form.
productions.The most obvious motive for
this was the need to use old broadcasts or
parts of them again at a later date, but
there has also been recognition of the
intrinsic value of broadcasts and the need
to preserve them as part of cultural history.
or those of us who work in broad-
casting, all this is well known, but it
is useful to describe the established practice
for those who come from other fields of
archiving. Radio and television pro-
grammes were usually produced on audio
or videotape before transmission. After
transmission, it was easy to keep the tape
reels in storage. In the same manner,broad-
casting companies also acquired large col-
lections of recorded music.
ost broadcasters kept card catalogues
of their archival tapes, stored with
the tape number and some additional
information. In the simplest case, the cards
Yleisradio (YLE) is Finland's national
public service broadcasting company.
It is among the first broadcasters to
face the challenge of creating a digi-
tal archive from radio broadcast
material. YLE has now adopted a full
digital radio archive solution where
the digitised material can be located,
listened to and transferred to the user
by browser-based technology. Jouni
Frilander, Pekka Gronow, Petri
Home, Markku Petäjä, Pekka Salo-
saari and Lasse Vihonen describe
some of the issues and challenges that
faced them when designing and cre-
ating this digital sound archive.
or more than half a decade, most
broadcasting companies have recog-
nised the need to archive some of their
and ISER. ISER includes the ESRC-
funded UK Longitudinal Studies Centre
(ULSC).The service aims to provide value-
added data enhancements, user support and
training for key longitudinal data collec-
tions including the British Cohort Study
(BCS70), the British Household Panel
Survey (BHPS), the Millennium Cohort
Study (MCS) and the National Child
Development Survey (NCDS).The service
will create additional derived variables,
enhanced data and documentation stan
dards across all studies, and improve infor-
mation on weighting, missing data, and sta-
tistical adjustments. Online access to data,
data samplers and documentation is also
planned to facilitate the exploration, mat-
ching and subsetting of data.
dians/), which has developed an online
multimedia demonstrator, represents the
first phase of this work.
he work of ESDS Longitudinal will
be undertaken jointly by the UKDA