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time spent on the activity and number
of performed iterations.
The `Resume' phase covers step 9 and
will enable written skills acquisition/
reinforcement. It will be possible to
assess and evaluate stored information,
developed arguments and summary, plus
the overall phase result.Tracking will
focus on performed activity, stored con
tent, time spent per activity and iterations.
Finally, the Expose phase (step 10) will
enable verbal skills acquisition/reinfor
cement while granting assessment and
evaluation of exposition quality and style.
urrent project achievements are
extremely encouraging and well in
line with technology and market evolu-
tion.The ASTRAL
case proves that it is
possible to further enrich the offer of real
content narrowcast initially in the cultural
heritage environment, but potentially to
many and varied environments of interest.
The adoption of both location-based and
context-aware solutions opens up new
opportunities to exploit content, granting
personalised and timely delivery.
Furthermore, using ASTRAL
it will be
possible to encourage a museum environ-
ment to be a lively and entertaining place
where users can discover the pleasure of
learning while amusing themselves and
interacting with people and the environ-
ment itself. In this sense, using ASTRAL
helps us begin the move towards ambient
pupils are free to follow a different path.
Behaviour will be evaluated with the
`expected path' representing a reference
model. Each workstation is equipped
with an RFID reader to be used in
combination with tagged objects and
the pupils' PDAs to perform special
operations.We assume that the pupil
holding the PDA will be the rapporteur
and must store data (e.g. statements or
comments) and retrieve data. For this
purpose, s/he will be provided with
representation of a data disk (which is
directly connected to the storage trigger
using RFID). Furthermore the rappor-
teur could have a virtual key that will
enable him/her to access the virtual
working environment, a representation
of a set of paper sheets to request prin-
touts, a magnifying glass to be used to
retrieve more information, and a
question mark to ask the system for
help. (This is an example of one
potential interface.)
7. Discuss the collected evidence.
Discussion will take place largely under
the tutor's supervision allowing monito-
ring of learning. Pupils discuss collected
information and share their evidence
with the group. Discussion should result
in a set of commonly agreed sources
and pieces of evidences that will consti-
tute the basis for further learning. It is
expected that pupils achieve a certain
degree of consensus while taking note
of dissonant point of views.
8. Argue results.Pupils must co-operate
in order to define the set of statements
they want to use as the basic struture of
their final report. During this phase
pupils structure their thoughts and find
ways to clearly expose them.
9. Justify work and results. Pupils must
find a consensus on how to use their
evidence to support their statements.
They must note disaccording points of
view and present the underlying reaso-
ning behind their conclusions.
10.Expose results. Pupils prepare their
written report based on previous stages
of work and convey to the appointed
rapporteur all of the evidence, statements
and related sources used.The finalised
work will be presented to the tutor
along with all the evaluation question-
naires that the pupils have completed in
the various steps of the process.
These activities can be divided into seve-
ral teaching goals:
`Organise' activities (steps 1 4 of the
above scenario) increase users' ability to
find and understand information as well
as to collaborate effectively.This phase
allows tutors to assess and evaluate
users' initial knowledge and beliefs,
information retrieval abilities, rule
retention, group organisation and
overall achieved results while tracking
performed activities (e.g. chat, mail,
forum), time spent per activity and
accessed content.
`Search and Select' activities (steps 5
6) facilitate better management of
finding and selecting information and a
development of ICT skills.This phase
allows assessment of users' initial know-
ledge and beliefs, the information selec
ted and overall results, while tracking
search and viewed content, time spent
per activity and number of iterations.
`Analyse' activities (steps 7 8) help
students raise, understand and demon-
strate opinions and enable tutors to
assess and evaluate selected, discarded
and retained information, developed
arguments and overall achieved results.
This phase allows tracking of performed
activities, viewed and stored content,
Fig. 4 - Example playground layout. Obviously the layout of the real
experimentation environment would depend on specific exhibitions.