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textual encoding ensures no data are lost
and tags can be designed as you go along.
A DTD was designed for this project (ini-
tially in SGML and now in XML) to rep-
resent the structure and the content of the
excavation diaries. The DTD was success-
fully integrated with the TEI Lite initiative
( and led to experi-
mentation with the markup of manuscripts,
for example, `Ruderi delle Ville Romano
Sabine nei dintorni di Poggio Mirteto'
by Ercole Nardi (c. 1885) (see the 2003
issue of Archeologia e Calcolatori for an arti-
cle on this manuscript). In an innovative
development, GIS was used as a platform
to integrate spatial data with the encoded
texts, perhaps for the first time in archaeol-
ogy, as in GIS spatial data are usually linked
to databases. This approach has been used
within the Caere project to study the dis-
tribution of finds in the urban area (see
Issue 9 of Archeologia e Calcolatori for a col-
lection of many international GIS projects).
sing technologies such as this in
archaeology can change and develop
the way the data and supporting documen-
tation are interpreted.
rcheologia e Calcolatori provides a valu-
able overview of the changes in my
area of study over the last fifteen years.
Significant developments include the hard-
ware change from mainframe to PCs, com-
puter graphics and, of course, the Internet.
From a methodological point of view,
scholars now have access to many more
facilities than they did in the early days of
computing archaeology, and this could lead
to an advance of technological approaches
over methodological or theoretical stand-
points. We must avoid the field becoming
more based on technology than archae-
ology! Methods and results are the most
important thing, not the technology used
to achieve them, and often the `wide' solu-
tions offered by the application of some
technologies overlook the scientific part
of discovery. For example, VR can provide
a spectacular way of visualising data, but
is not necessarily rigorous since informa-
tion is not always made explicit. Another
innovative system, GIS, acts as a contain-
er for older technologies it is not the be
all and end all of the archaeological study,
but can integrate many forms of previous
data in useful ways, if systems are designed
correctly. Of course, in terms of influence
on research methods and approaches, the
Internet has had and will have the most
significant effect on this field, not only in
terms of resource awareness for more peo-
ple, but in its role as the catalyst for the
development of standard languages such as
se of IT has driven a change in the
approach towards research, provid-
ing access to interpretations that are differ-
ent from those that would otherwise have
been noted _ a change in the traditional
approach that is extremely useful if a scien-
tific orientation is maintained.
believe that the future will see many
more changes in the study of archaeol-
ogy and the technologies used to achieve
results. The primary change will contin-
ue to be in communication methods and
the use of the Internet, together with the
development of multimedia techniques for
study and visualisation and more wide-
spread standardisation of data represen-
tation. Dissemination methods will also
change, with paper publications being used
for one type of study while e-publications
are exploited for others, and the e-publish-
ing revolution will continue.
athematical and computer tech-
niques have so much to offer to
the study of any scientific field. It is essen-
tial that we understand how best to use
them to maintain focus on the subjects at
hand and fully exploit new technologies to
improve our study methods and results.
he International Internet Preservation
Consortium (
was formed in 2003 to provide a focus for
international collaboration on preserving
online content. The key aims of the IIPC
to encourage collaborative work in order
to identify and develop solutions for the
selection, collection, preservation and
access of Internet content;
to facilitate international coverage of
Internet content archives;
to provide international support for
preservation and access initiatives.
he Consortium provides a forum for
the exchange of expertise and aims
to recommend appropriate standards for
these collections, developing new stand-
ards where necessary. It will also work on
the development of tools for the acquisi-
tion and archiving of Web sites, concentrat-
ing on interoperability and means of access.
Raising awareness of Internet preservation
issues is also a key goal and the IIPC will
run conferences and training workshops as
well as producing its own publications.
he Consortium comprises the nation-
al libraries of Australia, Canada,
Denmark, Finland, France, Iceland, Italy,
Norway, Sweden, The British Library (UK),
The Library of Congress (USA) and the
Internet Archive (USA). More informa-
tion can be found on the IIPC Web site at