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articipants were invited to offer any
general comments with regard to the
workshop theme and objectives. They iden-
tified a wide range of issues that will affect
the progress of 3D digitisation and distribu-
tion in the cultural heritage sector. The key
issues are described below.
Networks of Excellence
etworks of Excellence (NoEs) are
`designed to strengthen scientific and
technological excellence on a particular
research topic. They aim to overcome the
fragmentation of European research by:
networking together the critical mass of
networking the expertise needed to pro-
vide European leadership.
oEs will also have a mandate to
spread excellence beyond the bound-
aries of their partnership'.
ll of the participants felt that
Networks of Excellence for research
on 3D modelling and free distribution for
research results would be essential for the
cultural heritage sector to make the best
use of established and emerging 3D tech-
nology. It was also suggested that close col-
laboration with the Network of Excellence
for virtual reality would be of great benefit.
reater collaboration and co-opera-
tion is needed with those who are
leading research activities for 3D digitisa-
tion and distribution. The industrial design,
health and military sectors were identi-
fied as leaders in this field. The Cultural
Heritage sector has the chance of playing
a more significant role in the future, devel-
oping 3D digitisation of museum objects.
Increased communication between content
creators and service providers will be useful
in developing the sector.
y considering the external users and
diffusion `scenario', participants felt
that 3D virtual models should generate a
new understanding or create new knowl-
edge about the items they represent to jus-
tify the expenditure associated with their
creation. Experiencing very high-qual-
ity (`true') 3D is achieved only through
the use of specialised display technologies.
Currently, few end-users would have the
necessary display technology to view true
3D virtual models. European efforts to date
have focused largely on creating the effect
of 3D on a 2D computer screen. This is
known as 2.5D. Many participants ques-
tioned whether providing `true' 3D would
be any more beneficial to end-users than
2.5D. What added value can `true' 3D vir-
tual models offer compared with the added
expenses their generation and display
would incur? Participants also argued that,
until attractive and easy-to-use applications
exist, the demand by end-users for `true' 3D
or even 2.5D virtual models in the cultural
heritage sector would remain low.
t was generally agreed that safeguard-
ing IPR for 3D virtual models would be
challenging due to their complex nature
and their wide range of potential uses
and end-users. Producing suitable licens-
ing agreements to cover all possible uses
and users will require greater co-operation
between the varied stakeholders. However,
at the moment, while IPR watermarking
techniques are available for 2D objects, fur-
ther research is required to define efficient
3D watermarking techniques. This IPR
investigation can be developed in paral-
lel with the research on 3D modelling and
ll participants agreed that industry
standards are needed with regard to
formats, compression algorithms and colour
accuracy. Adhering to technical standards
will be of vital importance in facilitating
the interoperability, reusability and long-
term preservation of 3D virtual models
generated by the cultural heritage sector.
Standard policies and guidelines must be
drafted to assist the cultural heritage sec-
tor in their 3D virtual modelling efforts.
However, it was recognised that it is dif-
ficult to define standards when the tech-
nology is still developing. Many different
high-quality technical models must be pro-


69 Definition of Network Of Excellence from CORDIS FP6