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Rights Management and
Payment Technologies
prevention of unauthorised content duplication and dissemination, rights management
standards, and best practice guidance.The project addressed financial, technical and social
The project consortium comprises partner organisations from across the European
Community ­ three from the UK
and one partner from Denmark, Finland, France, the
Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden.
Given their extensive field experience, the partner
organisations had much to contribute to the formulation of the framework. For example,
solicitors from Tate and the Danish National Cultural Heritage Agency reached decisions
on legal and licensing agreements.Tate Copyright Officer Naomi Korn led the investiga-
tion of the copyright issues. It was considered imperative that the DCF incorporate a
facility to record information about licensing arrangements, and to handle concurrent
licensing agreements for different organisations with different priorities and approaches
towards the same material. Model licensing agreements usually serve as a starting point
for negotiations, but these must be flexible enough to meet the needs of individual
Permissions are likely to vary between delivery and distribution methods
(e.g. print or Web), and where in the past licences may have been granted for use in single
publications, licenses are increasingly granted for limited periods of time. Periods of one
to three years are common.The differences between the licensing-out to third parties of
rights belonging to museums and the licensing-in of rights for use by a museum were
made explicit.The complexities of the two-way relationships between consumers and
providers were mapped out.
Metadata are at the heart of rights management systems. In constructing the DCF,
consideration was given to how metadata should be created, linked to specific digital
objects, and stored.The system had to be flexible enough to respond to the variation
between infrastructures, policies, and sizes of institutions. EMII believes that it has created
a framework that is flexible enough to remain applicable to all sizes and types of organi-
sation. EMII hopes that DCF will be adopted as a European standard for distributed
cultural content. In planning how to manage digital rights its model has much to recom-
mend itself to European heritage institutions.
eBook Library
eBooks Corporation Limited is an Australian unlisted public company founded in
1997, and backed by investors in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.
The project receives funding from the Australian Government for its research and devel-
opment activities, and has long-standing and close working relationships with Adobe,
, Palm,
and other stakeholders in the burgeoning ebook industry. eBooks
Corporation launched its retail ebook store,, in September 2000 and
223 mda,; Illuminations Television,;Tate,
224 The National Cultural Heritage Agency, Kulturarvsstyrelsen, Denmark (; the National
Board of Antiquities, Museovirasto, Finland (; Ministry of Culture and Communication ­
Mission de la recherche et de la technologie, France (; Adlib
Information Systems BV, Netherlands (; Instituto Português de Museus, Museu
Nacional do Azulejo, Portugal (; National Council of Cultural Affairs, Statens
Kulturråd, Sweden (
225 Model licensing agreements are available at
226 case study is based on an e-mail questionnaire completed by eBooks Product
Manager Kari Paulson in December 2003.
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