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Rights Management and
Payment Technologies
wishes to purchase a high-quality digital item, he or she must register individually.
The archivist does not want to exclude users who are not registered, and therefore
decides to maintain three levels of functionality: the existing free access to a text-only
catalogue for all users, micropayment-enabled access to low-quality versions for
library/archive/museum users, and direct purchase of high-quality objects through the
digital payment system for individually registered users. He outsources the Web work,
and adapts the pages to reflect this new structure. Utilities to guide users through the
buying process are added.The archivist is confident that money coming in from this new
source will enable him to digitise and sell more and more digital items online.
An Art Gallery ­ Rights and Digital Collections
A medium-sized civic art gallery holds a number of original paintings and photographs,
dating from the Renaissance to modern times.The gallery is usually fairly busy, and
guests often include specialists who are interested in one particular item or collection.
The gallery also maintains a café and gift shop.
The gallery's Web site has been up and running for eight years, but it has only recently
started to present online details of the collections, including images of some of the more
famous or iconic items.The gallery's administrator keeps a logbook of telephone and e-
mail enquiries that cannot be quickly and easily resolved or answered. She notices that
the number of requests to use particular pictures in adverts and promotions has increased
significantly since details of the collections went online. After discussion with the gallery
manager, she decides to run a needs analysis to ascertain whether the gallery should
update its copyright licensing policy.The survey examines the needs of organisations and
individuals on local, national and international levels. It identifies the services the gallery
can offer which produce the greatest financial return and maximise public awareness of
the collection and its content.
The results of the survey indicate that the process of licensing reproductions from the
gallery's collections needs to be simplified and that there is a demand for early photographs
which is not currently being met as effectively as it might be. A significant amount of
interest is shown from overseas companies and institutions, simultaneously complicating
the rights issues problem and opening up potential new markets for business.
The gallery holds transparencies of many of the more popular paintings that could be
lent to licensees to enable them to reproduce the images. However, the gallery manager
would like to reduce the risks of damage and loss involved with transporting these trans-
parencies. She would also like to exploit the international market for these images more
fully, and therefore decides to offer images in a digital format, on CD or delivered over
the Internet.
The customer survey also indicated that there was a general lack of knowledge about
the issues surrounding the management and licensing of rights.The gallery manager
realises that a new, full-time member of staff is required to monitor and enforce copy-
right. His duties will include:
- Producing digital copies of the collections, beginning with the more popular
paintings and photograph collections;
230 For a potentially more lucrative scenario, see The DigiCULT Report:Technological Landscapes for Tomorrow's
Cultural Economy, pp. 162-174,"Turning Archival Databases into Goldmines:The Genealogy Case".
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